Prof. Fred Moshary: Application of a broadly tunable SG-DBR QCL for multi-species trace gas spectroscopy

Coauthored by Professor Fred Moshary of City College

Application of a broadly tunable SG-DBR QCL for multi-species trace gas spectroscopy in Optics Express

Feasibility of using a mid-Infrared tunable sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflectors quantum cascade laser for high resolution multicomponent trace gas spectroscopy is demonstrated. By controlling the driving currents to the front and back sections of the laser, we were able to tune a pulsed 4.55 µm laser over a frequency range a of 30 cm−1 with high resolution, accuracy and repeatability. The laser was applied to absorption spectroscopy of ambient and reduced pressure (150 Torr) air in a 205 meters multi-pass Herriott cell, and by using standard LSQ fitting to a spectral database of these trace gases (HITRAN), the concentrations of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and water vapor were retrieved.

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Prof Sharon Zukin: The omnivore’s neighborhood? Online restaurant reviews, race, and gentrification

Prof Sharon Zukin has first authored a new publication in the Journal of Consumer Culture.  Check it out below!

The omnivore’s neighborhood? Online restaurant reviews, race, and gentrification

S Zukin, S Lindeman, L Hurson – Journal of Consumer Culture, 2015

Abstract

Social media users who post restaurant reviews on the website Yelp.com act as both prosumers or produsers and ‘‘discursive investors’’ in gentrification. Their unpaid online reviews create cultural and financial value for individual restaurants and also construct a positive or negative image of their locations that may lead to economic investment. Moreover, Yelp reviewers show marked preferences in terms of race. Examining 7046 Yelp reviews of restaurants in a predominantly White-gentrifying and a predominantly Black-gentrifying neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, shows far more reviewers draw attention to the urban locale when the majority of residents are Black. A framing analysis of 1056 reviews that mention the neighborhood indicates that most Yelp reviewers feel positive about the White neighborhood, where they consider the traditional Polish restaurants ‘‘authentic’’ and ‘‘cozy,’’ while they feel negative about the Black neighborhood, which they criticize for a dearth of dining options and an atmosphere of dirt and danger. This language represents ‘‘discursive redlining’’ in the digital public realm, with Yelp reviewers contributing to taste-driven processes of gentrification and racial change.

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New faculty publications!

First authored by Professor Alfredo Morabia of Queens College

Authored by Professor Peter Marcotullio of Hunter College

Coauthored by Professor Fred Moshery of City College

Coauthored by Professor Samir Ahmed of City College

 

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New paper coauthored by Prof Longpre of Queens College

Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

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Abstract

Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011–2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15–20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially the lithospheric stresses imposed by increasing edifice load.

New Publication Coauthored by Prof Delson

We report dental remains of the extinct colobine monkey Mesopithecus from the Turolian (MN13, Late Miocene, ca. 6.23 Ma) locality of Venta del Moro (Valencia, Spain). They include most of the deciduous dentition and the unerupted germs of the first molars of a single infantile individual, as well as two lower left lateral incisors from two additional individuals. On the basis of morphometric comparisons, mainly based on the M1s, these remains are attributed to the Late Miocene species Mesopithecus pentelicus. They represent a significant addition to the knowledge of the deciduous dentition of this taxon, much less well-known than the permanent dentition. Although this genus was widely distributed from the Late Miocene through the Pliocene across Europe, southwestern Asia, Pakistan, and China, until now its occurence in the Late Miocene of the Iberian Peninsula had not been documented conclusively. Hence, the reported remains considerably enlarge southwestwards the known geographic distribution ofMesopithecus. The presence of this genus at Venta del Moro must be understood within the framework of the significant faunal turnover that took place in European faunas during the latest Turolian (the second Messinian mammalian dispersal), which is further documented at this locality by the occurrence of other eastern immigrants. At the same time, the presence of M. pentelicus at this site agrees well with previous paleoenvironmental and sedimentological evidence, indicating a lacustrine depositional environment with strong hydrologic seasonality.

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